Aktives #Lernen oder #Vorlesungen und Zaubersprüche?

In der Schule

Schüler beim Lernen

Mit einer ungewöhnlichen Methode bringt Lernrevolutionär Wieman heute zwölf Studenten aus Fachbereichen wie Geologie, Mathematik und Medizin bei, wie sie Studenten später besser unterrichten können. Mit dem richtigen Unterricht kann jeder in jedem Fach riesige Fortschritte machen. „Aktives Lernen“ heißt diese Methode heute: Studenten machen lassen, korrigieren, weitermachen lassen, wieder korrigieren, eine Art Autodidaktentum, aber unter Anleitung eines Mentors.

In der Tat zeigen aktuelle Studien, dass (fast) jeder (fast) alles lernen kann. Wichtig bei der Methode des aktiven Lernens ist der richtige Umgang mit Fehlern oder falschen Vorstellungen. Wieman liebt Irrtümer. Er ist überzeugt, dass Fehler wertvoll sind – je abwegiger, desto besser. Denn er sieht Fehler nicht als Niederlage, sondern als Chance, daran zu wachsen. Bei ihm im Seminar muss jeder Student ständig für sich allein neue Aufgaben bearbeiten. Die Lösungen werden dann gemeinsam im Kreis  mit allen anderen Studenten diskutiert – angeleitet von Wieman, der als oberster Fehlersucher und Korrektor fungiert. Selbst Unsinn feiert er noch als Erfolg. Bei ihm wird der Fehlerteufel zum Fehlerengel. Wieman schwänzte die Vorlesungen in Optik oder Atomphysik oft. Lieber bildete er sich im Labor fort, durch Ausprobieren und Scheitern und Weitermachen… Mit dieser zupackenden Lerntechnik schaffte er es bis in den Olymp seines Fachs. Nach der Nobelpreisehrung stellte er seine Physikkarriere zurück und widmete sich fortan seinem Lebensthema: Lernen lernen.

Lernen damals

Früher mussten nur Jungen zur Schule

Das Mitschreiben per Hand stört beim aktiven Mitdenken, das Mitschreiben am Notebook aber ist noch störender. Gut dagegen schneiden spielerische Techniken ab, etwa interaktive Abstimmung („Clicker“ genannt), bei denen die Studenten einfache Ja-Nein-Fragen beantworten müssen, wie man es von Quizshows kennt. Die häufige Rückmeldung von Studenten erlaubt den Lehrenden, den Lernfortschritt besser einzuschätzen. Am besten aber, so zeigte sich, sind die Ergebnisse beim aktiven Lernen. Die von Wieman propagierte Methode hat inzwischen auch deutsche Universitäten erreicht. Leider ist Deutschland in Bildungsfragen eher konservativ. Fehler gelten eher als Tabu und Makel, nicht als Anreiz zum Bessermachen. Grob geschätzt wird das aktive Lernen in Deutschland aber bereits in einem von hundert Seminaren eingesetzt.

Zu der Überraschung von Wieman kam der größte Widerstand gegen das aktive Lernen ausgerechnet von den Meistern der Zahlen: Mathematiker waren oft am zögerlichsten, auf Vorlesungen zu verzichten.

Hilmar Schmundt, Der Fehlerengel (Auszug), So wird jeder zum Genie: Der amerikanische Physiknobelpreisträger Carl Wieman feiert große Erfolge mit seiner Ausbildungsmethode, die auf „aktives Lernen“ setzt, Pädagogik, #DERSPIEGEL  7/2018

Über tuscade

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