#Kassandra von #ChristaWolf. Eine #Rezension

Das Trojanische Pferd

Griechen im Inneren eines hölzernen Pferdes. Das Trojanische Pferd.

Die Troerin Kassandra und ihr Bruder der Troer Paris sind tragende Figuren in der Erzählung von Christa Wolf. Paris, unehelich gezeugt, wird von seinem Vater, dem Troerkönig Priamos, ausgesetzt, aber von Hirten gerettet. Zum Highlight seines Lebens gehört es, einen Schönheitswettbewerb zwischen den Göttinnen Athene, Hera und Aphrodite zu entscheiden. Die siegreiche Aphrodite verspricht ihm als Belohnung für seine Wahl die schönste menschliche Frau auf Erden, die Griechin Helena. Diese ist aber gerade mit dem König von Sparta, Menelaos, verheiratet. Paris kann sie nur durch Raub gewinnen.

Helena ist nur kurz in Paris Besitz. Ägypter entreißen ihm ihrerseits Helena aus seinen Fängen. So trifft Paris mit einer verschleierten Gestalt in Troja ein. Diese weibliche Gestalt kann nur ihre Landsmännin Helena sein, das glauben zumindest die Griechen. Auch der einfache Troer unterliegt dieser Täuschung. Die mit seherischen Fähigkeiten vom griechischen Gott Apoll ausgestattete Kassandra durchschaut diesen Schwindel schnell. Priamos untersagt ihr aber, das Geheimnis zu verraten. Auf Grund solcher Täuschung an Griechen und Troern wird Troja zehn Jahre lang belagert. Erst dem griechischen Held Odysseus gelingt mit seiner List den Krieg zu beenden und Troja endgültig niederzuringen: Die nur zum Schein abziehenden Griechen hinterlassen ein hölzernes Ungestüm, genannt Trojanisches Pferd, vor der trojanischen Stadtmauer. Die Troer schaffen das vermeintliche „Abschiedsgeschenk“ in ihre Stadt und feiern ausgelassen und übermütig. – Kassandra wird fast wahnsinnig vor Verzweiflung und Wut. –

Reste späterer Mauern von Troja

Reste späterer Mauern von Troja

Das Geschehen nimmt seinen schicksalhaften Lauf. Nachts verläßt Odysseus als erster das selbst gewählte Gefängnis, Stadtmauern werden geöffnet, griechisches Militär strömt herein und das Morden an den Troern beginnt. Außer unzähligen Troern werden auch Troerkönig Priamos, und seine Tochter, die Priesterin Kassandra, vom Griechenkönig Agamemnon festgenommen und versklavt. Kassandra, die die Tragödie vorausahnte, erleidet den Tod. Sie wird von Agamemnons Frau und deren Geliebten umgebracht. – Weil ihre Warnungen nicht gehört wurden, durchlebte Kassandra Martyrien voller Schmerz und Angst. –

Troja - heute

Schauplatz des homerischen Troja – heute

Die Ich-Erzählerin Kassandra ist die tragische Figur der Handlung. Schon frühzeitig straft der  Gott Apoll Kassandra mit dem Fluch: Kein Mensch soll an ihre düsteren Prophezeiungen (Kassandrarufe) glauben, sie ernst nehmen. Das ist Apolls Strafe für die von ihr verschmähte Liebe zu ihm. Als troerische Königstochter gehört sie einem hohen Stand an, auch wird sie von ihrem Vater besonders geliebt, – ansonsten hat sie viele Widrigkeiten und viel Unheil zeit ihres Lebens erfahren müssen: Ihr erster „richtiger Mann“ war nicht der von ihr geliebte Aineias (der durch seine Flucht überlebt), sondern der griechische Priester Panthoos, oberster Apollo-Priester. An der Athene-Statue wird sie zudem von dem Griechen Klein Aias vergewaltigt. – Zu ihrer Zeit hat sich der Staat von einem Matriarchat zu einem Patriarchat gewandelt. In der „Vatergesellschaft“ ist kein Platz für sie. Kassandra wird eine Ungehorsame, eine Außenseiterin. Auch ihren eigenen Tod sieht sie voraus. Sie findet keinen Ausweg.

„Kassandra“ wurde zur Zeit des „kalten Krieges“ in Ost und West geschrieben. Im Jahre 1983 wurde die Erzählung in beiden deutschen Staaten bekannt. Christa Wolf nennt das Werk eine Schlüsselerzählung. Sie sieht sich in Kassandra verwirklicht. Kassandra ist die Prophetin eines Untergangs – eines Untergangs, der heutzutage hoffentlich niemals eintreffen wird.

Christa Wolf, Kassandra, Erzählung, Hermann Luchterhand Verlag, Darmstadt und Neuwied, 1983, 157 Seiten.

 

 

 

 

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